Something else noticeable missing from the Star Trek universe is enlisted personnel.
I always assumed that the redshirts in security and all the techs you see running around in smocks and plain shirts were enlisted personnel.
It seems like they don't have coders or people who administer systems. The engineers just repair systems but they don't feel like people who repair computer networks. It's also funny but aren't engineers wildly wildly divergent kinds of people. It seems like they just interchangeably take yellow shirts whenever they need to fix things
Chief O'Brien on TNG and DS9 was the only enlisted person of note, until Nog joined Engineering late in the series. He was a jack-of-all-trades who could fix almost any system. Watch Deep Space Nine for a good overview of what a 24th Century engineer does.
The internet question:
I was just watching a couple episode of Enterprise and they talked about contacting Linda Park's parents in one episode or being unable to contact Tripp's sister when that laser beam blasted from Florida to Venezuela.
However, if the internet still exists in the 23rd century or whatever. However, you don't have to rely on subspace communications, if there's some centralized internet, you just sort of need to log on and news about who survived could be posted immediately. I don't sense that there's some concept of a place to log on and find information in Star Trek, it generally boils down to a ships database.